Ansiedad, depresión y deshabituación tabáquica.

Virginia Almadana Pacheco, Ana Paulina Gómez-Bastero Fernández, Agustín Valido Morales, Estefanía Luque Crespo, Soledad Monserrat, Teodoro Montemayor Rubio

Resumen


Existe evidencia de la relación entre patología mental y tabaquismo y del mayor riesgo de sufrir un episodio depresivo al dejar de fumar, incluso con tratamientos específicos para la abstinencia. Objetivo: valorar la influencia de un programa de abandono del tabaco en el estado emocional de los pacientes mediante la medición de los niveles de ansiedad/depresión y las posibles diferencias en función de la presencia de antecedentes psiquiátricos. Método: estudio de cohortes observacional y prospectivo de pacientes que acudieron a dejar de fumar mediante programa combinado (farmacológico y cognitivo-conductual). Se midió ansiedad (A) y depresión (D) utilizando el cuestionario HADS al inicio, primer y tercer mes de abstinencia. Resultados: la ansiedad y la depresión presentaron mejoría significativa y progresiva a lo largo del tratamiento (A: basal 9,2±4,6; 1 mes 5,9±3,6; 3 meses 4,5±3,1; p<0,05 / D: basal 5,5±4,1; 1 mes 3±3; 3 meses 2,3±2,1; p<0,05), en la población psiquiátrica (A: basal 11,3±4,5; 1 mes 7,1±3,7; 3 meses 5,3±3,5; p<0,05 / D: basal 7,4±4,8; 1 mes 4,2±3,6; 3 meses 3±2,9; p<0,05), e independientemente del tratamiento. Tasa de abstinencia: 58,5%, no se vio afectada por los niveles basales de ansiedad y depresión. No se detectaron efectos secundarios neuropsiquiátricos relevantes. Conclusiones: los niveles de ansiedad y depresión evolucionan favorablemente durante el programa, alcanzándose buenos resultados, independientemente de la presencia de patología psiquiátrica.

Palabras clave


Ansiedad; depresión; tabaco; pacientes psiquiátricos; abstinencia tabáquica.

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.761