Papel de la detección regular de sustancias en orina en pacientes en valoración pre-transplante hepático por hepatopatía alcohólica

Hugo López Pelayo, Jose Altamirano, Eva López, Pablo Barrio, Ana López, Antoni Gual, Anna Lligoña

Resumen


La enfermedad hepática alcohólica (EHA) es una de las causas más frecuentes de trasplante hepático en enfermedad hepática terminal. No hay evidencia de impacto de la detección regular de sustancias en orina (DRSO) sobre la supervivencia de los pacientes con EHA. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron comparar la sensibilidad de la DRSO, evaluar su impacto en la supervivencia y en el trasplante de hígado, y evaluar el impacto de la adherencia a la DRSO. Realizamos un estudio retrospectivo (N = 84) con candidatos para trasplante de hígado por EHA. Registramos las variables demográficas, bioquímicas y clínicas al inicio del estudio. Evaluamos la adherencia a la DRSO durante el seguimiento. Calculamos la sensibilidad tanto de la DRSO como de las declaraciones de los pacientes para todas las sustancias. Realizamos análisis multivariables (regresión logística) y de supervivencia para explorar los factores asociados y el impacto de la adherencia a la DRSO, y de los resultados positivos en la DRSO sobre la supervivencia. La DRSO tuvo una alta sensibilidad para identificar bebedores activos (76,9%), fumadores (78,9%) y consumidores de cannabis (83,3%). Alta adherencia a la DRSO tuvo una asociación inversa con mortalidad durante el seguimiento. La presencia de trastornos de la personalidad tuvo un impacto negativo (RM ,29, IC 95% ,08-,97) sobre la adherencia a la DRSO. Tanto la DRSO como las declaraciones deben llevarse a cabo en este perfil de pacientes. Los profesionales que participan en programas de trasplante hepático deben promover el cumplimiento de la DRSO, principalmente en pacientes con trastornos de la personalidad.


Palabras clave


Alcohol; Trasplante hepático; Enfermedad hepática terminal; Adherencia; Dependencia del alcohol; Dependencia a sustancias.

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.1121

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