Uso de sustancias en adolescentes y su asociación con factores de riesgo y protección. Un análisis exploratorio de la encuesta escolar a gran escala de Comunidades Que se Cuidan, Colombia

Pablo Montero Zamora, María Fernanda Reyes Rodríguez, Francisco Cardozo Macías, Eric C Brown, Augusto Pérez Gómez, Juliana Mejía Trujillo, Jennifer Toro Bermúdez, Mayra Paredes Aguilar

Resumen


Communities That Care (CTC) es un sistema preventivo que busca disminuir comportamientos problemáticos en adolescentes. En Colombia, este sistema ha sido adaptado bajo el nombre de Comunidades Que se Cuidan (CQC). Este estudio validó las asociaciones entre los factores de riesgo y protección (FRP) para el uso de sustancias psicoactivas (SPA) medidos por CQC y las prevalencias de consumo de estas en adolescentes colombianos. Entre 2012 y 2016, se aplicó una encuesta a gran escala en jóvenes de 10 a 19 años (N = 50,946) pertenecientes a 23 comunidades de Colombia. Se analizó de forma transversal la asociación entre los FRP con el consumo de alcohol, cigarrillo, marihuana y otras drogas ilegales en los últimos 30 días, año y alguna vez en la vida. Se realizaron regresiones logísticas, ajustando por edad, sexo y sus interacciones con cada FRP. Todas las asociaciones de los 14 FRP evaluados fueron significativas (p < .001). De los efectos observados, 3,0% se consideraron efectos muy pequeños (0,70 ≤ OR ≤ 1,43), 51,7% pequeños (0,70 ≥ OR ≥ 1,43), 42,6% medianos (0,40 ≥ OR ≥ 2,48) y 7,1% grandes (0,23 ≥ OR ≥ 4,27). Se encontraron asociaciones significativas para edad, sexo y sus interacciones con los FRP para la mayoría de FRP. Los hallazgos demuestran la validez de los FRP estudiados para la planificación, el desarrollo y la evaluación futura de sistemas preventivos comunitarios como CQC, los cuales se basan en datos epidemiológicos para la toma de decisiones locales.


Palabras clave


Factores de riesgo; Consumo de SPA; Adolescentes; Prevención.

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.1083

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